Home12. SANTI PARVA (Page 2)

12. SANTI PARVA (369)

“Bharadwaja said, ‘By what acts does one become a Brahmana? By what, aKshatriya? O best of regenerate ones, by what acts again does one becomea Vaisya or a Sudra? Tell me this, O foremost of speakers.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘I am conversant with both the Vedas and thescriptures that lead to the attainment of Brahma.

“Bhrigu said, ‘Truth is Brahma; Truth is Penance; it is Truth thatcreates all creatures. It is by Truth that the whole universe is upheld;and it is with the aid of Truth that one goes to heaven.

“Bharadwaja said, ‘What has been said to be the consequence of gift? Whatof Righteousness? What of conduct? What of Penances well-performed? Whatof the study and recitation of the Vedas? And what of pouring libationsupon the fire?’

“Bhrigu said, ‘Forest recluses seeking the acquisition of virtue go tosacred waters and rivers and springs, and undergo penances in lone andsecluded woods abounding with deer and buffaloes and boars and tigers andwild elephants.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘I think, O grandsire, that thou art acquainted witheverything, O thou that art conversant with duties. I desire to hear theediscourse to me, O sinless one, of the ordinances about conduct.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘I think, O grandsire, that thou art acquainted witheverything, O thou that art conversant with duties. I desire to hear theediscourse to me, O sinless one, of the ordinances about conduct.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Tell me, O grandsire, what and of what nature isthat which is called by the name of Adhyatma and which is laid down forevery person.[600] O thou that art acquainted with Brahma, whence hasthis universe consisting of mobile and immobile things, been created?When universal destruction sets in, to whom does it go? It behoveth theeto discourse to me upon this topic.'[601]

“Bhishma said, ‘I shall now, O son of Pritha, discourse to thee upon thefour kinds of yoga meditation. The great Rishis, obtaining a knowledge ofthe same, attain to eternal success even here.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou hast discoursed on the four modes of life andtheir duties. Thou hast also spoken of the duties of kings.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou hast said that as regards Reciters, they obtainthis very high end.[627] I beg to enquire whether this is their only endor there is any other to which they attain.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Tell me what description of hell is obtained by aReciter? I feel, O king, a curiosity to know this. It behoveth thee todiscourse on the subject.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou hadst referred to the dispute between Time,Mrityu, Yama, Ikshvaku, and a Brahmana. It behoveth thee to narrate thestory in full.’

“Vaisampayana said, ‘That foremost of speakers, the sage Narada, thusquestioned, narrated everything about the manner in which he who wasbelieved to be a Suta’s son had been cursed (in former days).’

Vaisampayana said, “After Yudhishthira had stopped, the great asceticDevasthana, possessed of eloquence, said these words, fraught withreason, unto the king.”

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Tell me, O grandsire, what reply was given by eitherthe Brahmana or the monarch to Virupa after the conclusion of thelatter’s speech.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘What are the fruits of the yoga represented byKnowledge, of all the Vedas, and of the (various) observances and vows?How also may the creature-soul be known? Tell us, this, O grandsire!’

“Manu said, ‘From that eternal and undeteriorating One first sprangSpace; from space came Wind; from wind came Light; from light came Water;from water sprang the Universe; and from the universe, all things thatoccur in it.

“Manu said, ‘The mind united with the senses, recollects after a longtime the impressions of the objects received in the past.

“Manu said, ‘As in a dream this manifest (body) lies (inactive) and theenlivening spirit in its subtile form, detaching itself from the former,walks forth after the same manner, in the state called deep slumber (ordeath), the subtile form with all the senses becomes inactive and the

“Manu said, ‘Upon the appearance of the physical and mental sorrow, onedoes not become able to practise yoga.

“Manu said, ‘When the fivefold attributes are united with the five sensesand the mind, then is Brahma seen by the individual like a thread passingthrough a gem.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘O grandsire, O thou of great wisdom, I desire tohear in detail, O chief of the Bharatas, of that lotus-eyed andindestructible one, who is the

“Yudhishthira asked, ‘Who were the first Prajapatis, O bull of Bharata’srace? What highly-blessed Rishis are there in existence and on whichpoints of the compass do each of them dwell?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘O grandsire, O thou of great wisdom and invincibleprowess in battle, I wish to hear in detail of Krishna who is immutableand omnipotent. O bull among men, tell me truly everything about hisgreat energy and the great feats achieved by him in days of old. Why didthat puissant one assume the form of an animal, and for achieving whatparticular act? Tell me all this, O mighty warrior!’

“Devasthana said, ‘In this connection is cited an old history, viz., thediscourse that Vrihaspati, asked by Indra, delivered unto him.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Tell me, O sire, of that high yoga by which, OBharata, I may obtain Emancipation, O foremost of speakers, I desire toknow everything about that yoga truly.’

“Bhishma said, ‘All immobile and mobile beings, distributed into fourclasses, have been said to be of unmanifest birth and unmanifest death.

“Bhishma said, ‘Persons engaged in the practice of acts regard thepractice of acts highly. Similarly, those that are devoted to Knowledgedo not regard anything other than Knowledge.

“Bhishma said, ‘From the attribute of Passion arises delusion or loss ofjudgment. From the attribute of Darkness, O bull of Bharata’s race, arisewrath and cupidity and fear and pride.

“Bhishma said, ‘I shall now tell thee what the means are (for conqueringthe senses) as seen with the eye of the scriptures. A person, O king,will attain to the highest end by the help of such knowledge and byframing his conduct accordingly. Amongst all living creatures man is saidto be the foremost.

“Bhishma said, ‘Living creatures, by being attached to objects of thesenses which are always fraught with evil, become helpless.

“Bhishma said, ‘The yogin who wishes to always practise sinlessBrahmacharya and who is impressed with the faults attaching to dreamsshould, with his whole heart, seek to abandon sleep.

“Bhishma said, ‘He cannot be said to know Brahma who does not know thefour topics (viz., dreams, dreamless slumber, Brahma as indicated byattributes, and

“Yudhishthira said, ‘By following what conduct, O thou that artconversant with all courses of conduct, did Janaka, the ruler of Mithilaversed in the religion of Emancipation, succeed in attaining toEmancipation, after casting off all worldly enjoyments?’

“Bhishma said, ‘Janadeva of the race of Janaka, thus instructed by thegreat Rishi Panchasikha, once more asked him about the topic of existenceor nonexistence after death.’

Vaisampayana said, “After this, Arjuna once more addressed his eldestbrother of unfading glory, viz., king Yudhishthira of cheerless heart,and said these words:

“Yudhishthira said, ‘By doing what does one acquire happiness, and whatis that by doing which one meets with woe? What also is that, O Bharata,by doing which one becomes freed from fear and sojourns here crowned withsuccess (in respect of the objects of life)?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘The three regenerate classes, who are given tosacrifices and other rites, sometimes eat the remnants, consisting ofmeat and wine, of sacrifices in honour of the deities, from motives ofobtaining children and heaven. What, O grandsire, is the character ofthis act?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘In this world, O Bharata, acts good and bad attachthemselves to man for the purpose of producing fruits for enjoyment orendurance. Is man, however, to be regarded as their doer or is he not tobe regarded so? Doubt fills my mind with respect to this question. Idesire to hear this in detail from thee, O grandsire!’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Tell me, O grandsire, by adopting what sort ofintelligence may a monarch, who has been divested of prosperity andcrushed by Time’s heavy bludgeon, still live on this earth.’

“Bhishma said, ‘Once more, laughing at Vali who was sighing like a snake,Sakra addressed him for saying something more pointed than what had saidbefore.[837]

“Bhishma said, ‘After this, he of hundred sacrifices beheld the goddessof Prosperity, in her own embodied form that blazed splendour, issue outof the form of the high-souled Vali. The illustrious chastiser of Paka,beholding the goddess blazing with radiance, addressed Vali in thesewords, with eyes expanded in wonder.’

“Bhishma said, ‘In this connection is also cited the old narrative of thediscourse between him of a hundred sacrifices and the Asura Namuchi, OYudhishthira.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘What, indeed, is good for a man that is sunk in diredistress, when loss of friends or loss of kingdom, O monarch hasoccurred? In this world, O bull of Bharata’s race, thou art the foremostof our instructors. I ask thee this. It behoveth thee to tell me what Iask.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Tell me, O grandsire, the indications of futuregreatness and future fall in respect of a person.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘By what disposition, what course of duties, whatknowledge, and what energy, does one succeed in attaining to Brahma whichis immutable and which is beyond the reach of primordial nature.'[866]

Vaisampayana said, “Thus addressed by Arjuna of curly hair, the Kuru kingborn of Kunti remained speechless. Then the island-born (Vyasa) saidthese words.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘What man is there who is dear to all, who gladdensall persons, and who is endued with every merit and every accomplishment?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘I desire, O thou of Kuru’s race, to know what theorigin and what the end is of all creatures; what is the nature of theirmeditation and what are their acts; what are the divisions of time, andwhat the allotted periods of life in the respective epochs.

“Vyasa said, ‘Brahma is the effulgent seed from which, existing as itdoes by itself, hath sprung the whole universe consisting of two kinds ofbeing, viz., the mobile and the immobile.

“Vyasa said, ‘I shall now tell thee, how, when his day is gone and hisnight comes, he withdraws all things unto himself, or how the SupremeLord, making this gross universe exceedingly subtile, merges everythinginto his Soul.

“Vyasa said, ‘Thou hadst asked me about the Creation of all beings; Ihave now narrated that to thee in full.

“Vyasa said, ‘The knowledge called Trayi which occurs in the Vedas andtheir branches should be acquired.

“Vyasa said, ‘If Emancipation be desirable, then knowledge should beacquired. For a person who is borne now up and now down along the streamof Time or life, knowledge is the raft by which he can reach the shore.

“Vyasa said, ‘Borne up and down in life’s ocean, he that is capable ofmeditation seizes the raft of Knowledge and for achieving hisEmancipation adheres to Knowledge itself (without extending his armshither and thither for catching any other support).'[919]

“Vyasa said, ‘These, then, are the obligatory acts ordained forBrahmanas. One possessed of knowledge always attains to success by goingthrough (the prescribed) acts.

“Bhishma said, ‘Thus addressed (by his sire), Suka, highly applaudingthese instructions of the great Rishi, set himself about asking thefollowing, question relating to the import of duties that lead toEmancipation.’

Vaisampayana said, “Once more the great sage Krishna-Dwaipayana saidthese words unto Ajatasatru, the son of Kunti

“Vyasa said, ‘O excellent son, asked by thee, I have told thee truly whatthe answer to thy question should be according to the doctrine ofknowledge as expounded in the Sankhya system.

“Suka said, ‘The declarations of the Vedas are twofold. They once Jaydown the command, ‘Do all acts.’ They also indicate (the reverse,saying), ‘Give up acts.’

“Suka said, ‘I have now understood that there are two kinds of creation,viz., one commencing with Kshara (which is universal), and which is fromthe (universal) Soul. The other, consisting of the senses with theirobjects, is traceable to the puissance of the knowledge.

“Vyasa said, ‘Observant of meritorious vows, the householder, for thesecond period of life, should dwell in his house, having taken spousesaccording to the ways indicated in the ordinance and having establishedafire (of his own).

“Bhishma said, “Though hast been told what the duties of domesticity areas ordained by the wise. Listen now, O Yudhishthira, to what those dutiesare that have been next spoken of.

“Suka said, ‘While living in the due observance of the duties of theforemost of life, how should one, who seeks to attain to That which isthe highest object of knowledge, set one’s soul on Yoga according to thebest of one’s power?’

“Vyasa said, ‘The Jiva-soul is endued with all those entities that aremodifications of Prakriti. These do not know the Soul but the Soul knowsthem all.

“Suka said, ‘O illustrious one, O foremost of Rishis, once againdiscourse to me on Adhyatma more elaborately. Tell me what, indeed, isAdhyatma and whence does it come?'[1041]

“Vyasa said, ‘The mind creates (within itself) numerous ideas (of objectsor existent things). The Understanding settles which is which.

“Vyasa said, ‘The objects by which one is surrounded are created by theunderstanding. The Soul, without being connected with them, stands aloof,presiding over them.

Vaisampayana said, “Hearing the words of the Island-born Rishi and seeingDhananjaya angry, Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, saluted Vyasa and madethe following answer.

“Suka said, ‘Let thy reverence tell me of that which is the foremost ofall duties, indeed, of that duty above which no higher one exists in thisworld.’

“Vyasa said, ‘One should not show any affection for scents and tastes andother kinds of enjoyment. Nor should one accept ornaments and otherarticles contributing to the enjoyment of the senses of scent and taste.

“Vyasa said, ‘Unto a disciple that wishes to enquire after Emancipationafter having transcended all pairs of opposites and accomplished theconcerns of both profit and religion, an accomplished preceptor shouldfirst recount all that has been said in the foregoing section, which iselaborate, on the topic of Adhyatma.

“Vyasa said, ‘Those that are conversant with the scriptures behold, withthe aid of acts laid down in the scriptures, the Soul which is clothed ina subtile body and is exceedingly subtile and which is dissociated fromthe gross body in which it resides.

“Vyasa said, ‘There is a wonderful tree, called Desire, in the heart of aman. It is born of the seed called Error. Wrath and pride constitute itslarge trunk.

“Bhishma said, ‘Do thou, O son, O sinless one, listen once more, withfeelings of great pride, to the words that fell from the lips of theIsland-born Rishi on the subject of the enumeration of the entities.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘These lords of earth that lie on the earth’s surfaceamid their respective hosts, these princes endued with great might, arenow reft of animation. Every one of these mighty monarchs was possessedof strength equal to that of ten thousand elephants.

“Sthanu said, ‘Know, O lord, that my solicitations to thee are on behalfof the created beings of the universe. These beings have been created bythee. Do not be angry with them, O grandsire! By the fire born of thyenergy, O illustrious one, all the created beings are being consumed.Beholding them placed in such a plight, I am penetrated with compassion.Do not be angry with them, O lord of the universe.’

“Narada said, ‘The large-eyed lady, controlling her grief by an effort ofher own, addressed the Grandsire, with joined hands and bending in anattribute of humility like a creeper.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘All men that inhabit this earth are filled withdoubts in respect of the nature of righteousness.

Vaisampayana said, “In this connection, the high-souled Yudhishthira saidunto Arjuna these words fraught with reason.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou sayest that righteousness or duty depends upondelicate considerations, that is indicated by the conduct of those thatare called good, that it is fraught with restraints (from numerous acts),and that its indications are also contained in the Vedas.

“Bhishma said, ‘In this connection is cited the old narrative of theconversation of Tuladhara with Jajali on the topic of righteousness.

“Bhishma said, ‘Thus addressed by the intelligent Tuladhara on thatoccasion, Jajali of great intelligence, that foremost of ascetics, saidthese words unto him.’

“Jajali said, ‘This course of duty that thou, O holder of scales,preachest, closes the door of heaven against all creatures and puts astop to the very means of their subsistence.

“Tuladhara said, ‘See with thy own eyes, O Jajali, who, viz., those thatare good or those that are otherwise, have adopted this path of duty thatI have spoken of.

“Bhishma said, ‘In this connection is cited an old narrative of what wasrecited by king Vichakhy through compassion for all creatures.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou, O grandsire, art our highest preceptor in thematter of all acts that are difficult of accomplishment (in consequenceof the commands of superiors on the one hand and the cruelty that isinvolved in them on the other). I ask, how should one judge of an act inrespect of either one’s obligation to do it or of abstaining from it? Isit to be judged speedily or with delay?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘How, indeed, should the king protect his subjectswithout injuring anybody. I ask thee this, O grandsire, tell me, Oforemost of good men!’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou hast already explained to me, O grandsire, howthe religion of Yoga, which leads to the six well-known attributes, maybe adopted and practised without injuring any creature.

“Kapila said, ‘Beholding that all the fruits that are attainable by actsare terminable instead of being eternal, Yatis, by adoptingself-restraint and tranquillity, attain to Brahma through the path ofknowledge.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘In consequence of the fall Abhimanyu of tenderyears, of the sons of Draupadi, of Dhrishtadyumna, of Virata, of kingDrupada, of Vasusena conversant with every duty, of the royalDhrishtaketu, and of diverse other kings hailing from diverse regions, inbattle, grief does not forsake my wretched self that am a slayer ofkinsmen.

“Kapila said, ‘The Vedas are regarded as authoritative by all. Peoplenever disregard them.

“Yudhishthira said, ‘The Vedas, O Bharata, discourse of Religion. Profit,and Pleasure. Tell me, however, O grandsire, the attainment of which(amongst these three) is regarded as superior.’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Amongst the diverse kinds of sacrifices, all ofwhich, of course, are regarded to have but one object (viz., thecleansing of the heart or the glory of God), tell me, O grandsire, whatthat sacrifice is which has been ordained for the sake only of virtue andnot for the acquisition of either heaven or wealth!'[1283]

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Amongst the diverse kinds of sacrifices, all ofwhich, of course, are regarded to have but one object (viz., thecleansing of the heart or the glory of God), tell me, O grandsire, whatthat sacrifice is which has been ordained for the sake only of virtue andnot for the acquisition of either heaven or wealth!'[1283]

“Yudhishthira said, ‘By what means doth a man become sinful, by what dothhe achieve virtue, by what doth he attain to Renunciation, and by whatdoth he win Emancipation?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘By what means doth a man become sinful, by what dothhe achieve virtue, by what doth he attain to Renunciation, and by whatdoth he win Emancipation?’

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Thou hast said, O grandsire, the Emancipation is tobe won by means and not otherwise. I desire to hear duly what those meansare.’

“Bhishma said, ‘In this connection is cited the old narrative of thediscourse that took place between Narada and Asita-Devala. Once on a timeNarada, beholding that foremost of intelligent men, viz., Devala ofvenerable years, seated at his ease, questioned him about the origin andthe destruction of all creatures.’

🙏 धर्म और आध्यात्म को जन-जन तक पहुँचाने में हमारा साथ दें| 🙏