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Chapter 252

Mahabharata English - SANTI PARVA

“Vyasa said, ‘Unto a disciple that wishes to enquire after Emancipationafter having transcended all pairs of opposites and accomplished theconcerns of both profit and religion, an accomplished preceptor shouldfirst recount all that has been said in the foregoing section, which iselaborate, on the topic of Adhyatma.[1081] Space, wind, light, water andearth counted as the fifth, and bhava and abhava and time, exist in allliving creatures having the five for their constituent ingredients.[1082]Space is unoccupied interval. The organs of hearing consist of space. Oneconversant with the science of entities endued with form should know thatspace has sound for its attribute. The feet (that assist at locomotion)have wind for their essence. The vital breaths are made of wind. Thesense of touch (skin) has wind for its essence, and touch is theattribute of wind. Heat, the digestive fire in the stomach, light thatdiscovers all things, the warmth that is in the body, and eye counted asthe fifth, are all of light which has form of diverse colours for itsattribute. Liquefied discharges, solubility, and all kinds of liquidmatter are of water. Blood, marrow, and all else (in the body) that iscool, should be known to have water for their essence. The tongue is thesense of taste, and taste is regarded as the attribute of water. Allsolid substances are of earth, as also bones, teeth, nails, beard, thebristles on the body, hair, nerves, sinews, and skin. The nose is calledthe sense of scent. The object of that sense, viz., scent, should beknown as the attribute of earth. Each subsequent element possesses theattribute or attributes of the preceding one besides its own. [1083] Inall living creatures again are the (three) supplementary entities (viz.,avidya, kama, and karma).[1084] The Rishis thus declared the fiveelements and the effects and attributes flowing from or belonging tothem. The mind forms the ninth in the calculation, and the understandingis regarded as the tenth. The Soul, which is infinite, is called theeleventh. It is regarded as this all and as the highest. The mind hasdoubt for its essence. The understanding discriminates and causescertainty. The Soul (which, as already said, is infinite), becomes knownas Jiva invested with body (or jivatman) through consequences derivedfrom acts.[1085] That man who looketh upon the entire assemblage ofliving creatures to be unstained, though endued with all these entitieshaving time for their essence, has never to recur to acts affected byerror.'”[1086]

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