Chapter 9

Mahabharata English - BHISHMA PARVA

“Dhritarashtra said,–‘Tell me truly (O Sanjaya) of this Varsha that iscalled after Bharata, where this senseless force hath been collected, inrespect of which this my son Duryodhana hath been so very covetous, whichthe sons of Pandu also are desirous of obtaining, and in which my mindtoo sinketh. O, tell me this, for thou art, in my judgment endued withintelligence.

“Sanjaya said,–‘Listen to me, O king The sons of Pandu are not covetousabout this country. On the other hand, it is Duryodhana that is covetous,and Sakuni the son of Suvala, as also many other Kshatriyas who arerulers of the provinces, who being covetous of this country are not ableto bear one another. I will now will thee, O thou of Bharata’s race, ofthe tract of land known by Bharata’s name. This land is the beloved oneof Indra, and, O thou of Bharata’s race, this land, O monarch, that iscalled after Bharata, is also the beloved land of Manu, the son ofVivaswat, of Prithu, of Vainya, of the high-souled Ikshwaku, of Yayati,of Amvarisha, of Mandhatri, of Nahusha, of Muchukunda, of Sivi the son ofUsinara, of Rishava, of Ila, of king Nriga, of Kusika, O invincible one,of the high-souled Gadhi, of Somaka, O irrepressible one, and of Dilipa,and also, O monarch, of many other mighty Kshatriyas. I will now, Ochastiser of foes, describe to thee that country as I have heard of it.Listen to me, O king, as I speak of what thou hast asked me. Mahendra,Malaya, Sahya, Suktimat, Rakshavat, Vindhya, and Paripatra,–these sevenare the Kala-mountains[58] (of Bharatvarsha). Besides these, O king,there are thousands of mountains that are unknown, of hard make, huge,and having excellent valleys. Besides these there are many other smallermountains inhabited by barbarous tribes. Aryans and Mlecchas, O Kauravya,and many races, O lord, mixed of the two elements, drink the waters ofthe following rivers, viz., magnificent Ganga, Sindhu, and Saraswati; ofGodavari, and Narmada, and the large river called Yamuna; ofDhrishadwati, and Vipapa, and Vipasa and Sthulavaluka; of the riverVetravati, and that other one called Krishna-vena; of Iravati, andVitasta, and Payosyini, and Devika; of Vedasmrita and Vedavati, andTridiva, and Ikshumalavi;[59] of Karishini, and Chitravaha, and the rivercalled Chitrasena; of Gomati, and Dhutapada and the large river calledGandaki[60], of Kausiki, and Nischitra, and Kirtya, and Nichita, andLohatarini;[61] of Rashasi and Satakumbha, and also Sarayu; ofCharmanwati, and Vetravati,[62] and Hastisoma, and Disa; of the rivercalled Saravati, and Venna, and Bhimarathi; of Kaveri, and Chuluka, andVina, and Satavala; of Nivara, and Mahila, and Suprayoga, O king; ofPavitra, and Kundala, and Rajani, and Puramalini; of Purvabhirama, andVira, and Bhima, and Oghavati; of Palasini, and Papahara, and Mahendra,and Patalavati, of Karishini, and Asikni, and the large river Kusachira:of Makari, and Pravara, and Mena, and Hema, and Dhritavati; of Puravati,and Anushna, and Saivya, and Kapi, O Bharata; of Sadanira, and Adhrishya,and the mighty stream Kusadhara; of Sadakanta, and Siva, and Viravati; ofVatsu, and Suvastu, and Kampana with Hiranwati; of Vara, and the mightyriver Panchami, of Rathachitra, and Jyotiratha, and Viswamitra, andKapinjala; of Upendra, and Vahula, and Kuchira, and Madhuvahini: ofVinadi, and Pinjala, and Vena, and the great river Pungavena; of Vidisaand Krishna-vena, and Tamra, and Kapila, of Salu, and Suvama, theVedaswa, and the mighty river Harisrava; of Sighra, and Pischala, and theriver Bharadwaji, of the river Kausiki, and Sona, and Chandrama; ofDurgamantrasila, and Brahma-vodhya, and Vrihadvati; of Yaksha, and Rohi,and Yamvunadi; of Sunasa and Tamasa, and Dasi, and Vasa, and Varuna, andAsi; of Nila, and Dhrimati, and the mighty river Parnasa; of Pomasi, andVrishabha, and Brahma-meddhya, and Vrihaddhani. These and many otherlarge rivers, O king, such as Sadonirmaya and Krishna, and Mandaga, andMandavahini; and Mahagouri, and Durga, O Bharata; and Chitropala.Chitraratha, and Manjula, and Vahini; and Mandakini, and Vaitarani, andKosa, and Mahanadi; and Suktimati, and Ananga, and Pushpaveni, andUtpalavati; and Lohitya, Karatoya, and Vrishasabhya; and Kumari, andRishikullya and Marisha, and Saraswati; and Mandakini, and Supunya,Sarvasanga, O Bharata, are all mothers of the universe and productive ofgreat merit. Besides these, there are rivers, by hundreds and thousands,that are not known (by names), I have now recounted to thee, O king, allthe rivers as far as I remember.

“After this, listen to the names of the provinces as I mention them. Theyare the Kuru-Panchalas, the Salwas, the Madreyas, the Jangalas, theSurasena, the Kalingas, the Vodhas, the Malas, the Matsyas, theSauvalyas, the Kuntalas, the Kasi-kosalas, the Chedis, the Karushas, theBhojas, the Sindhus, the Pulindakas, the Uttamas, the Dasarnas, theMekalas, the Utkalas; the Panchalas, the Kausijas, the Nikarprishthas,Dhurandharas; the Sodhas, the Madrabhujingas, the Kasis, and thefurther-Kasis; the Jatharas, the Kukuras, O Bharata; the Kuntis, theAvantis, and the further-Kuntis; the Gomantas, the Mandakas, the Shandas,the Vidarbhas, the Rupavahikas; the Aswakas, the Pansurashtras, theGoparashtras, and the Karityas; the Adhirjayas, the Kuladyas, theMallarashtras, the Keralas, the Varatrasyas, the Apavahas, the Chakras,the Vakratapas, the Sakas; the Videhas, the Magadhas, the Swakshas, theMalayas, the Vijayas, the Angas, the Vangas, the Kalingas, theYakrillomans; the Mallas, the Suddellas, the Pranradas, the Mahikas, theSasikas; the Valhikas, the Vatadhanas, the Abhiras, the Kalajoshakas; theAparantas, the Parantas, the Pahnabhas, the Charmamandalas; theAtavisikharas, the Mahabhutas, O sire; the Upavrittas, the Anupavrittas,the Surashatras, Kekayas; the Kutas, the Maheyas, the Kakshas, theSamudranishkutas; the Andhras, and, O king, many hilly tribes, and manytribes residing on lands laying at the foot of the hills, and theAngamalajas, and the Manavanjakas; the Pravisheyas, and the Bhargavas, Oking; the Pundras, the Bhargas, the Kiratas, the Sudeshnas, and theYamunas, the Sakas, the Nishadhas, the Anartas, the Nairitas, theDurgalas, the Pratimasyas, the Kuntalas, and the Kusalas; the Tiragrahas,the Ijakas, the Kanyakagunas, the Tilabharas, the Samiras, theMadhumattas, the Sukandakas; the Kasmiras, the Sindhusauviras, theGandharvas, and the Darsakas; the Abhisaras, the Utulas, the Saivalas,and the Valhikas; the Darvis, the Vanavadarvas, the Vatagas, theAmarathas, and the Uragas; the Vahuvadhas, the Kauravyas, the Sudamanas,the Sumalikas; the Vadhras, the Karishakas, the Kalindas, and theUpatyakas; the Vatayanas, the Romanas, and the Kusavindas; the Kacchas,the Gopalkacchas, the Kuruvarnakas; the Kiratas, the Varvasas, theSiddhas, the Vaidehas, and the Tamraliptas; the Aundras, the Paundras,the Saisikatas, and the Parvatiyas, O sire.

“‘There are other kingdoms, O bull of Bharata’s race, in the south. Theyare the Dravidas, the Keralas, the Prachyas, the Mushikas, and theVanavashikas; the Karanatakas, the Mahishakas, the Vikalpas, and also theMushakas; the Jhillikas, the Kuntalas, the Saunridas, and theNalakananas; the Kankutakas, the Cholas, and the Malavayakas; theSamangas, the Kanakas, the Kukkuras, and the Angara-marishas; theSamangas, the Karakas, the Kukuras, the Angaras, the Marishas: theDhwajinis, the Utsavas, the Sanketas, the Trigartas, and the Salwasena;the Vakas, the Kokarakas, the Pashtris, and the Lamavegavasas; theVindhyachulakas, the Pulindas, and the Valkalas; the Malavas, theVallavas, the further-Vallavas, the Kulindas, the Kalavas, the Kuntaukas,and the Karatas; the Mrishakas, the Tanavalas, the Saniyas; the Alidas,the Pasivatas, the Tanayas, and the Sulanyas; the Rishikas, theVidarbhas, the Kakas, the Tanganas, and the further-Tanganas. Among thetribes of the north are the Mlecchas, and the Kruras, O best of theBharatas; the Yavanas, the Chinas, the Kamvojas, the Darunas, and manyMleccha tribes; the Sukritvahas, the Kulatthas, the Hunas, and theParasikas; the Ramanas, and the Dasamalikas. These countries are,besides, the abodes of many Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra tribes. Thenagain there are the Sudra-abhiras, the Dardas, the Kasmiras, and thePattis; the Khasiras; the Atreyas, the Bharadwajas, the Stanaposhikas,the Poshakas, the Kalingas, and diverse tribes of Kiratas; the Tomaras,the Hansamargas, and the Karamanjakas. These and other kingdoms are onthe east and on the north. O lord, alluding to them briefly I have toldthee all. Earth, if its resources are properly developed according to itsqualities and prowess, is like an ever-yielding[63] cow, from which thethree-fold fruits of virtue, profit and pleasure, may be milked. Bravekings conversant with virtue and profit have become covetous of Earth.Endued with activity, they would even cast away their lives in battle,from hunger of wealth. Earth is certainly the refuge of creatures enduedwith celestial bodies as also of creatures endued with human bodies.[64]Desirous of enjoying Earth, the kings, O chief of the Bharatas, havebecome like dogs that snatch meat from one another. Their ambition isunbounded, knowing no gratification.[65] It is for this that the Kurusand the Pandavas are striving for possession of Earth, by negotiation,disunion, gift, and battle, O Bharata. If Earth be well looked after, itbecometh the father, mother, children, firmament and heaven, of allcreatures, O bull among men.'”

Chapter 10
Chapter 8
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