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Chapter 39

Mahabharata English - UDYOGA PARAVA

“Dhritarashtra said, ‘Man is not the disposer of either his prosperity oradversity. He is like a wooden doll moved by strings. Indeed, the Creatorhath made man subject to Destiny. Go on telling me, I am attentive towhat thou sayest.’

“Vidura said, ‘O Bharata, by speaking words out of season even Vrihaspatihimself incurreth reproach and the charge of ignorance, one becomethagreeable by gift, another by sweet words, a third by the force ofincantation and drugs. He, however, that is naturally agreeable, alwaysremaineth so. He that is hated by another is never regarded by that otheras honest or intelligent or wise. One attributeth everything good to himone loveth; and everything evil to him one hateth. O king, as soon asDuryodhana was born I told thee,–thou shouldst abandon this one son, forby abandoning him thou wouldst secure the prosperity of thy hundredsons,–and by keeping him, destruction would overtake thy hundred sons,that gain should never be regarded highly which leadeth to loss. On theother hand, that loss even should be regarded highly which would bring ongain. That is no loss, O king, which bringeth on gain. That, however,should be reckoned as loss which is certain to bring about greater lossesstill. Some become eminent in consequence of good qualities; othersbecome so in consequence of wealth. Avoid them, O Dhritarashtra, that areeminent in wealth but destitute of good qualities!’

“Dhritarashtra said, ‘All that you sayest is approved by the wise and isfor my future good. I dare not, however, abandon my son. It is well-knownthat where there is righteousness there is victory.’

“Vidura said, ‘He that is graced with every virtue and is endued withhumility, is never indifferent to even the minutest sufferings of livingcreatures. They, however, that are ever employed in speaking ill ofothers, always strive with activity quarrelling with one another and inall matters, calculated to give pain to others. There is sin in acceptinggifts from, and danger in making gifts to them, whose very sight isinauspicious and whose companionship is fraught with danger. They thatare quarrelsome, covetous, shameless, deceitful, are known unrighteous,and their companionship should always be avoided. One should also avoidthose men that are endued with similar faults of a grave nature, When theoccasion that caused the friendship is over the friendship of those thatare low, the beneficial result of that connection, and the happiness alsoderivable from it, all come to an end. They then strive to speak ill oftheir (late) friend and endeavour to inflict loss on him, and if the lossthey sustain be even very small, for all that they, from want ofself-control, fail to enjoy peace. He that is learned, examiningeverything carefully and reflecting well, should, from a distance, avoidthe friendship of vile and wicked-minded persons such as these. He thathelpeth his poor and wretched and helpless relatives, obtain children andanimals and enjoyeth prosperity that knoweth no end. They that desiretheir own benefit should always succour their relatives. By every means,therefore, O king, do thou seek the growth of thy race. Prosperity willbe thine, O Monarch, if thou behavest well towards all thy relatives.Even relatives that are destitute of good qualities should be protected.O bull of the Bharata race, how much more, therefore, should they beprotected that are endued with every virtue and are humbly expectant ofthy favours? Favour thou the heroic sons of Pandu, O monarch, and let afew villages be assigned to them for their maintenance. By acting thus, Oking, fame will be thine in this world. Thou art old; thou shouldst,therefore, control thy sons. I should say what is for thy good. Know meas one that wishes well to thee. He that desireth his own good shouldnever quarrel, O sire, with his relatives. O bull of the Bharata race,happiness should ever be enjoyed with one’s relatives, and not withoutthem, to eat with one another, to talk with one another, and to love oneanother, are what relatives should always do. They should never quarrel.In this world it is the relatives that rescue, and the relatives thatruin (relatives). Those amongst them that are righteous rescue; whilethose that are unrighteous sink (their brethren). O king, be thou, Ogiver of honours, righteous in thy conduct towards the sons of Pandu.Surrounded by them, thou wouldst be unconquerable by thy foes. If arelative shrinks in the presence of a prosperous relative, like a deer atsight of a hunter armed with arrows, then the prosperous relative hath totake upon himself all the sins of the other. O best of men, repentancewill be thine (for this thy inaction at present) when in future thou wilthear of the death of either the Pandavas or thy sons. O, think of allthis. When life itself is unstable, one should in the very beginningavoid that act in consequence of which one would have to indulge inregrets having entered the chamber of woe. True it is that a person otherthan Bhargava, the author of the science of morality is liable to commitactions that go against morality. It is seen, however, that a just notionof consequence is present in all persons of intelligence. Thou art anaged scion of Kuru’s race. If Duryodhana inflicted these wrongs on thesons of Pandu, it is thy duty, O king of men, to undo them all.Re-instating them in their position, thou wilt, in this world, becleansed of all thy sins and be, O king of men, an object of worship witheven those that have their souls under control. Reflecting on thewell-spoken words of the wise according to their consequences, he thatengageth in acts never loseth fame. The knowledge imparted by even men oflearning and skill is imperfect, for that which is sought to beinculcated is ill-understood, or, if understood, is not accomplished inpractice. That learned person who never doth an act, the consequences ofwhich are sin and misery, always groweth (in prosperity). The person,however, of wicked soul, who from folly pursueth his sinful coursecommenced before falleth into a slough of deep mire. He that is wiseshould ever keep in view the (following) six conduits by which counselsbecome divulged, and he that desireth success and a long dynasty shouldever guard himself from those six. They are, intoxication, sleep,inattention to spies, set over one by another, one’s own demeanour asdependent on the working of one’s own heart, confidence reposed on awicked counsellor, and unskilful envoys. Knowing these six doors (throughwhich counsels are divulged), he that keepeth them shut while pursuingthe attainment of virtue, profit, and desire, succeedeth in standing overthe heads of his foes. Without an acquaintance with the scriptures andwithout waiting upon the old, neither virtue nor profit can be known (orwon) by persons blessed even with the intelligence of Vrihaspati. A thingis lost if cast into the sea; words are lost if addressed to one thatlistens not; the scriptures are lost on one that hath not his soul undercontrol; and a libation of clarified butter is lost if poured over theashes left by a fire that is extinguished. He that is endued with theintelligence maketh friendships with those that are wise, having firstexamined by the aid of his intelligence, repeatedly searching by hisunderstanding, and using his ears, eyes, and judgment. Humility removethobloquy, ears, failure, prowess; forgiveness always conquereth anger; andauspicious rites destroy all indications of evil. One’s lineage, O king,is tested by his objects of enjoyment, place of birth, house, behaviour,food, and dress. When an object of enjoyment is available, even that onewho hath attained emancipation is not unwilling to enjoy; what, again,need be said of him that is yet wedded to desire? A king should cherish acounsellor that worshippeth persons of wisdom, is endued with learning,virtue, agreeable appearance, friends, sweet speech, and a good heart.Whether of low or high birth, he who doth not transgress the rules ofpolite intercourse, who hath an eye on virtue, who is endued withhumility and modesty, is superior to a hundred persons of high birth. Thefriendship of those persons never cooleth, whose hearts, secret pursuits,and pleasures, and acquirements, accord in every respect. He that isintelligent should avoid an ignorant person of wicked soul, like a pitwhose mouth is covered with grass, for friendship with such a person cannever last. The man of wisdom should never contract friendship with thosethat are proud, ignorant, fierce, rash and fallen off from righteousness.He that is grateful, virtuous, truthful, large-hearted, and devoted, andhe that hath his senses under control, preserveth his dignity, and neverforsaketh a friend, should be desired for a friend. The withdrawal of thesenses from their respective objects is equivalent to death itself. Theirexcessive indulgence again would ruin the very gods. Humility, love ofall creatures, forgiveness, and respect for friends,–these, the learnedhave said, lengthen life. He who with a firm resolution striveth toaccomplish by a virtuous policy purposes that have once been frustrated,is said to possess real manhood. That man attaineth all his objects, whois conversant with remedies to be applied in the future, who is firmlyresolved in the present, and who could anticipate in the past how an actbegun would end. That which a man pursueth in word, deed, and thought,winneth him for its own; therefore, one should always seek that which isfor his good. Effort after securing what is good, the properties of time,place, and means, acquaintance with the scriptures, activity,straightforwardness, and frequent meetings with those that aregood,–these bring about prosperity. Perseverance is the root ofprosperity, of gain, and of what is beneficial. The man that pursueth anobject with perseverance and without giving it up in vexation, is reallygreat, and enjoyeth happiness that is unending. O sire, there is nothingmore conducive of happiness and nothing more proper for a man of powerand energy as foregiveness in every place and at all times. He that isweak should forgive under all circumstances. He that is possessed ofpower should show forgiveness from motives of virtue; and he, to whom thesuccess or failure of his objects is the same, is naturally forgiving.That pleasure the pursuit of which doth not injure one’s virtue andprofit, should certainly be pursued to one’s fill. One should not,however, act like a fool by giving free indulgence to his senses.Prosperity never resides in one who suffers himself to be tortured by agrief, who is addicted to evil ways, who denies Godhead, who is idle, whohath not his senses under control, and who is divested of exertion. Theman that is humble, and who from humility is modest is regarded as weakand persecuted by persons of misdirected intelligence. Prosperity neverapproacheth from fear the person that is excessively liberal, that givethaway without measure, that is possessed of extraordinary bravery, thatpractiseth the most rigid vows, and that is very proud of his wisdom.Prosperity doth not reside in one that is highly accomplished, nor in onethat is without any accomplishment. She doth not desire a combination ofall the virtues, nor is she pleased with the total absence of allvirtues. Blind, like a mad cow, prosperity resides with some one who isnot remarkable. The fruits of the Vedas are ceremonies performed beforethe (homa) fire; the fruits of an acquaintance with the scriptures aregoodness of disposition and conduct. The fruits of women are thepleasures of intercourse and offspring; and the fruits of wealth areenjoyment and charity. He that performeth acts tending to secure hisprosperity in the other world with wealth acquired sinfully, neverreapeth the fruits of these acts in the other world, in consequence ofthe sinfulness of the acquisitions (spent for the purpose). In the midstof deserts, or deep woods, or inaccessible fastnesses, amid all kinds ofdangers and alarms or in view of deadly weapons upraised for strikinghim, he that hath strength of mind entertaineth no fear. Exertion,self-control, skill, carefulness, steadiness, memory, and commencement ofacts after mature deliberation,–know that these are the roots ofprosperity. Austerities constitute the strength of ascetics; the Vedasare the strength of those conversant with them; in envy lieth thestrength of the wicked; and in forgiveness, the strength of the virtuous.These eight, viz., water, roots, fruits, milk, clarified butter (what isdone at) the desire of a Brahmana, (or at) the command of a preceptor,and medicine, are not destructive of a vow. That which is antagonistic toone’s own self, should never be applied in respect of another. Brieflyeven this is virtue. Other kinds of virtue there are, but these proceedfrom caprice. Anger must be conquered by forgiveness; and the wicked mustbe conquered by honesty; the miser must be conquered by liberality, andfalsehood must be conquered by truth. One should not place trust on awoman, a swindler, an idle person, a coward, one that is fierce, one thatboasts of his own power, a thief, an ungrateful person, and an atheist.Achievements, period of life, fame, and power–these four always expandin the case of him that respectfully saluteth his superiors and waitethupon the old. Do not set thy heart after these objects which cannot beacquired except by very painful exertion, or by sacrificingrighteousness, or by bowing down to an enemy. A man without knowledge isto be pitied; an act of intercourse that is not fruitful is to be pitied;the people of a kingdom that are without food are to be pitied; and akingdom without a king is to be pitied. These constitute the source ofpain and weakness to embodied creatures; the rains, decay of hills andmountains; absence of enjoyment, anguish of women; and wordy arrows ofthe heart. The scum of the Vedas is want of study; of Brahmanas, absenceof vows; of the Earth, the Vahlikas; of man, untruth; of the chastewoman, curiosity; of women, exile from home. The scum of gold is silver;of silver, tin; of tin, lead; and of lead, useless dross. One cannotconquer sleep by lying down; women by desire; fire by fuel; and wine bydrinking. His life is, indeed, crowned with success who hath won hisfriends by gifts, his foes in battle, and wife by food and drink; theywho have thousands live; they, who have hundreds, also live. ODhritarashtra, forsake desire. There is none who cannot manage to live bysome means or other. Thy paddy, wheat, gold, animals, and women that areon earth all cannot satiate even one person .. Reflecting on this, theythat are wise never grieve for want of universal dominion. O king, Iagain tell thee, adopt an equal conduct towards thy children, i.e.,towards the sons of Pandu and thy own sons.'”



🙏 ♻ प्रयास करें कि जब हम आये थे उसकी तुलना में पृथ्वी को एक बेहतर स्थान के रूप में छोड़ कर जाएं। सागर में हर एक बूँद मायने रखती है। ♻ 🙏