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Chapter 104

Mahabharata English - ANUSASANA PARVA

“Yudhishthira said, ‘Man, it is said, is endued with a period of lifeextending for a hundred years, and with energy and might that areconsiderable. Why then, O grandsire, do human beings die even when theyare very young? By what does a man become endued with longevity, and bywhat is his life shortened? Through what does a man acquire the fame thatrests upon great achievements? Through what does one attain to wealth andprosperity? Is it by penances, or Brahmacharya, or silent recitation ofsacred Mantras, or drugs? Is it by his acts, or speech? Do thou explainto me this, O grandsire!’

“Bhishma said, ‘I shall tell thee what thou askest me. In fact, I shalltell thee what the reason is for which one becomes shortlived, and whatthe reason is for which one becomes endued with longevity. I shall alsoexplain to thee the reason for which one succeeds in acquiring the famethat rests on great achievements, and the reason for which one succeedsin acquiring wealth and prosperity. Indeed, I shall enlighten thee as tothe manner in which one must live in order to be endued with all that isbeneficial for him. It is by conduct that one acquires longevity, and itis by conduct that one acquires wealth and prosperity. Indeed, it is byconduct that one acquires the fame that rests upon great achievementsboth here and hereafter. The man whose conduct is improper or wickednever acquires a long life. All creatures become afraid of such a man andare oppressed by him. If, therefore, one wishes one’s own advancement andprosperity, one should, in this world, betake to conduct that is properand good. Good conduct succeeds in dispelling the inauspiciousness andmisery of even one that is sinful.[457] Righteousness has conduct for itsindication. They that are good and righteous are so in consequence of theconduct they follow. The indications, again, of good conduct are affordedby the acts of those that are good or righteous. People esteem that manwho acts righteously and who does good acts even if they only hear of himwithout actually seeing him. They that are atheists, they that aredestitute of all acts, they that are disobedient to preceptors andtransgress the injunctions of the scriptures, they that are unacquaintedwith and, therefore, unobservant of duties, and they that are wicked ofconduct, become shortlived. They that are of improper behaviour, theythat transgress all restraints, they that are unscrupulous in respect ofsexual congress, become shortlived here and have to go to Hell hereafter.Even those men live for a hundred years who, though destitute of allaccomplishments, betake themselves to propriety and righteousness ofconduct and become endued with faith and freed from malice. He that isfree from wrath, that is truthful in speech, that never does any injuryto any creature in the universe, that is divested of malice andcrookedness and insincerity, succeeds in living for a hundred years. Hewho always breaks little clods of earth, or tears up the grass that growsunder his feet, or cuts off his nails with his teeth, or is alwaysimpure, or very restless, never succeeds in acquiring a long life.[458]One should wake up from sleep at the hour known as the Brahma Muhurta andthen think of both religion and profit. Getting up from bed, one shouldthen wash one’s face and mouth, and joining one’s hands in an attitude ofreverence, say the morning prayers.[459] In this way, one should whenevening comes, say one’s evening prayers also, restraining speech (withother people) the while. One should never look at the rising sun, nor atthe setting sun.[460] Nor should one look at the sun when he is ineclipse; nor at his image in the water; nor at midday when he is at themeridian. The Rishis, in consequence of their adoring the two twilightswith great regularity succeeded in attaining to longevity. Hence, oneshould, restraining speech, say one’s prayers regularly at the twotwilights. As regards those Brahmanas that do not say their prayers atthe two twilights, a righteous king should set them to accomplish suchacts as are ordained for the Sudras. Persons of every order should neverhave sexual congress with other people’s wives. There is nothing thatshortens life so effectually as sexual congress with other people’swives. For as many thousand years shall the adulterer have to live inHell as the number of pores on the bodies of the women with whom he maycommit the offence. One should dress one’s hair, apply collyrium to one’seyes, and wash one’s teeth, as also worship the deities, in the forenoon.One should not gaze at urine or faeces, or tread on it or touch it withone’s feet. One should not set out on a journey at early dawn, or atmidday, or in the evening twilight, or with a companion that is unknown,or with a Sudra, or alone. While going along a road, one should, standingaside, always make way to a Brahmana, to kine, to kings, to an old man,to one that is weighted with a burden, to a woman quick with child, or toone that is weak. When one meets a large tree that is known, one shouldwalk round it. One should also, when coming upon a spot where four roadsmeet, walk round it before pursuing one’s journey. At midday, or atmidnight, or at night in general, or at the two twilights, one should notproceed to spots where four roads meet. One should never wear sandals orclothes that have been worn by another. One should always observe the vowof Brahmacharya, and should never cross one’s legs. One should observethe vow of Brahmacharya on the day of the new moon, as also on that ofthe full moon, as also on the eighth lunar day of both fortnights. Oneshould never eat the flesh of animals not slain in sacrifice. One shouldnever eat the flesh of the back of an animal. One should avoid censuringand calumniating others, as also all kinds of deceitful behaviour.[461]One should never pierce others with wordy shafts. Indeed, one shouldnever utter any cruel speech. One should never accept a gift from aperson that is low and vulgar. One should never jitter such words astrouble other people or as are inauspicious or are as’ sinful. Wordyshafts fall from the mouth. Pierced therewith, the victim grieves day andnight. The man of wisdom should never shot them for piercing the vitalsof other people. A forest, pierced with shafts or cut down with the axe,grows again. The man, however, that is pierced with words unwiselyspoken, becomes the victim of wounds that fester and lead to death.[462]Barbed arrows and Nalikas and broadheaded shafts are capable of beingextracted from the body. Wordy shafts, however, are incapable of beingextracted, for they lie embedded in the very heart. One should not taunta person that is defective of a limb or that has a limb in excess, or onethat is destitute of learning, or one that is miserable, or one that isugly or poor, or one that is destitute of strength. One should avoidatheism, calumniating the Vedas, censuring the deities, malice, pride,arrogance, and harshness. One should not, in wrath, take up the rod ofchastisement for laying it upon another. Only the son or the pupil, ithas been said, can be mildly chastised for purposes of instruction. Oneshould not speak ill of Brahmanas; nor should he point at the stars withone’s fingers. If asked, one should not say what the lunation is on aparticular day. By telling it, one’s life becomes shortened. Havinganswered calls of nature or having walked over a road, one should washone’s feet. One should also wash one’s feet before sitting to recite theVedas or to eat any food. These are the three things which are regardedas pure and sacred by the deities and as such fit for the Brahmana’s use,viz., that whose impurity is unknown, that which has been washed inwater, and that which has been well-spoken of. Samyava, Krisara, meat,Sashakuli and Payasa should never be cooked for one’s own self. Whenevercooked, these should be offered to the deities.[463] One should attendevery day to one’s fire. One should every day give alms. One should,restraining speech the while, clean one’s teeth with the tooth-stick. Oneshould never be in bed when the sun is up. If one fails any day to be upwith the sun, one should then perform an expiation. Rising from bed, oneshould first salute one’s parents, and preceptors, or other seniorsdeserving of respect. By so doing one attains to long life. Thetooth-stick should be cast off when done with, and a new one should beused every day. One should eat only such food as is not forbidden in thescriptures, abstaining from food of every kind on days of the new moonand the full moon. One should, with senses restrained, answer calls ofnature, facing the north. One should not worship the deities withouthaving first washed one’s teeth, Without also worshipping the deitiesfirst, one should never repair to any person save one’s preceptor or onethat is old in years or one that is righteous or one that is possessed ofwisdom. They that are wise should never see themselves in an unpolishedor dirty mirror. One should never have sexual congress with a woman thatis unknown or with one that is quick with child. One should never sleepwith head turned towards the north or the west. One should not lie downupon a bed-stead that is broken or rickety. One should not sleep on a bedwithout having examined it first with the aid of a light. Nor should onesleep on a bed with another (such as wife) by one’s side. One shouldnever sleep in a transverse direction. One should never make a compactwith atheists or do anything in conjunction with them.[464] One shouldnever drag a seat with the foot and sit on it. One should never bathe ina state of nudity, nor at night. One possessed of intelligence shouldnever suffer one’s limbs to be rubbed or pressed after bathing. Oneshould never smear unguents upon one’s body without having first takenbath. Having bathed, one should never wave one’s cloth in the air (fordrying it). One should not always wear wet clothes. One should never takeoff one’s body the garlands of flowers one may wear. Nor should one wearsuch garlands over one’s outer garments. One should never even talk witha woman during the period of her functional change. One should not answera call of nature on a field (where crops are grown) or at a place toonear an inhabited village. One should never answer a call of nature on awater. One should first wash one’s mouth thrice with water before eatingany food. Having finished one’s meals, one should wash one’s mouth thricewith water and twice again. One should eat, with face turned eastwards,one’s food, restraining speech the while and without censuring the foodthat is eaten. One should always leave a remnant of the food that isplaced before one for eating. Having finished one’s meals, one shouldmentally touch fire. If one eats with face turned eastwards, one becomesendued with longevity. By eating with face turned southwards, oneacquires great fame. By eating with face turned westwards, one acquiresgreat wealth. By eating with face turned northwards, one becomes truthfulin speech. Having finished one’s meals one should wash all the upperholes of one’s body with water.[465] Similarly, all the limbs, the navel,and the palms of the hands should be washed with water. One should neverseat oneself upon husk of corn, or upon hair, or upon ashes, or uponbones. One should, on no account, use the water that has been used byanother for bathing. One should always perform the Homa for propitiatingthe deities, and recite the Savitri Mantra. One should always eat in aseated posture. One should never eat while walking. One should neveranswer a call of nature in a standing posture. One should never answer acall of nature on ashes or in a cow-pen. One should wash one’s feetbefore sitting to one’s meals. One should never sit or lie down for sleepwith wet feet. One who sits to one’s meals after having washed one’sfeet, lives for a hundred years. One should never touch these threethings of great energy, while one is in an impure state, viz., fire, acow, and a Brahmana. By observing this rule, one acquires longevity. Oneshould not, while one is in an impure state, cast one’s eyes on thesethree things of great energy, viz., the sun, the moon, and the stars. Thelife-breaths of a young man go upwards when an old and venerable personcomes to his abode. He gets them back by standing up and properlysaluting the guest. Old men should always be saluted. One should, uponseeing them, offer seats with one’s own hand. After the old man has takenhis seat, one should seat oneself and remain with hands joined inreverence. When an old man goes along the road, one should always followhim instead of walking ahead. One should never sit on a torn or brokenseat. One should, without using it any longer, cast away a broken vesselof white brass. One should never eat without a piece of upper garmentwrapping one’s body. One should never bathe in a state of nudity. Oneshould never sleep in a state of nudity. One should never even touch theremnants of other people’s dishes and plates. One should never, while oneis in an impure state, touch another’s head, for it is said in thescriptures that the life-breaths are all concentrated in the head. Oneshould never strike another on the head or seize another by the hair. Oneshould not join one’s hands together for scratching one’s head. Oneshould not, while bathing, repeatedly dip one’s head in water. By sodoing one shortens one’s life. One who has bathed by dipping the head inwater should not, afterwards, apply oil to any part of one’s body. Oneshould never take a meal without eating some sesame. One should neverteach (the Vedas or any scriptures) at a time when one is impure. Norshould one study while one is impure. When a storm rises or a bad odourpermeates in the atmosphere, one should never think of the Vedas. Personsconversant with ancient history recite a Gatha sung by Yama in days ofold. He that runs while impure or studies the Vedas under similarcircumstances, indeed, that regenerate Brahman who studies the Vedas atforbidden times, loses his Vedas and shortens his life. Hence, one shouldnever study the Vedas with concentrated attention at forbidden times.They who answer a call of nature, with face towards the sun, or towards ablazing fire, or towards a cow, or towards a regenerate person, or on theroad, become shortlived. At daytime both calls of nature should beanswered with face turned towards the north. At night, those calls shouldbe answered facing the south. By so doing one does not shorten one’slife. One that wishes to live long should never disregard or insult anyof these three, however weak or emaciated they may appear to be, viz.,the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the snake. All three are endued withvirulent poison. The snake, if angry, burns the victim with only a glanceof its eyes. The Kshatriya also, if angry, burns the objects of hiswrath, as soon as he sees him, with his energy. The Brahmana, strongerthan any of these two, destroys not only the objects of his wrath but hiswhole race as well, not by vision alone but by thought also.[466] The manof wisdom should, therefore, tend these three with care. One should,never engage in any disputation with one’s preceptor. O Yudhishthira, ifthe preceptor becomes angry, he should always be pacified by due honoursbeing paid to him. Even if the preceptor happens to be entirely wrong,one should still follow and honour him. Without doubt, calumnious sayingsagainst the preceptor always consume the lives of those that utter them.One should always answer a call of nature at a spot far removed fromone’s habitation. One should wash one’s feet at a distance from one’shabitation. One should always throw the remnants of one’s dishes andplates at a spot far removed from one’s habitation. Verily, he whodesires his own good should do all these. One should not wear garlands ofred flowers. Indeed, they who are possessed of wisdom should weargarlands of flowers that are white in hue. Rejecting the lotus and thelily, O thou of great might, one may bear on one’s head, however, aflower that is red, even if it be an aquatic one.[467] A garland of goldcan under no circumstances become impure. After one has bathed, O king,one should use perfumes mixed with water.[468] One should never wearone’s upper garment for covering the lower limbs or the lower garmentsfor covering the upper ones. Nor should one wear clothes worn by another.One should not, again, wear a piece of cloth that has not its lateralfringes.[469] When one goes to bed, O king, one should wear a differentpiece of cloth. When making a journey also on a road, one should wear adifferent piece of cloth. So also, when worshipping the deities, oneshould wear a different piece of cloth.[470] The man of intelligenceshould smear his limbs with unguents made of Priyangu, sandalwood, Vilwa,Tagara, and Kesara.[471] In observing a fast, one should purify oneselfby a bath, and adorn one’s person with ornaments and unguents. One shouldalways abstain from sexual congress on days of the full moon and the newmoon. One should never, O monarch, eat off the same plate with anothereven if that other happens to be of one’s own or equal rank. Nor shouldone ever eat any food that has been prepared by a woman in her functionalperiod. One should never eat any food or drink, any liquid whose essencehas been taken off. Nor should one eat anything without giving a portionthereof to persons that wishfully gaze at the food that one happens totake. The man of intelligence should never sit close to one that isimpure. Nor should one sit close to persons that are foremost inpiety.[472] All food that is forbidden in ritual acts should never betaken even on other occasions. The fruits of the Ficus religiosa and theFicus Bengalensis as also the leaves of the Crotolaria Juncea, and thefruits of the Ficus glomerata, should never be eaten by one who isdesirous of his own good. The flesh of goats, of kine, and the peacock,should never be eaten. One should also abstain from dried flesh and allflesh that is stale. The man of intelligence should never eat any salt,taking it up with his hand. Nor should he eat curds and flour of friedbarley at night. One should abstain also from flesh of animals not slainin sacrifices. One should, with concentrated attention, eat once on themorning and once in the evening, abstaining entirely from all food,during the interval. One should never eat any food in which one maydetect a hair. Nor should one eat at the Sraddha of an enemy. One shouldeat silently; one should never eat without covering one’s person with anupper garment, and without sitting down.[473] One should never eat anyfood placing it on the bare ground. One should never eat except in asitting posture. One should never make any noise while eating.[474] Theman of intelligence should first offer water and then food to one thathas become his guest, and after having served the guest thus, should thensit to his meals himself. He who sits down to dinner in a line withfriends and himself eats any food without giving thereof to his friends,is said to eat virulent poison. As regards water and Payasa and flour offried barley and curds and ghee and honey, one should never, afterdrinking or eating these, offer the remnants thereof to others. Oneshould never, O chief of men, eat any food doubtingly.[475] One desirousof food should never drink curds at the conclusion of a meal. After themeal is finished, one should wash one’s mouth and face with the (right)hand only, and taking a little water should then dip the toe of the rightfoot in it. After washing, one should touch the crown of one’s head withthe (right) hand. With concentrated attention, one should next touchfire. The man who knows how to observe all these ordinances with care,succeeds in attaining to the foremost place among his kinsmen. Oneshould, after finishing one’s meals, with one’s nose and eyes and earsand navel and both hands wash with water. One should not, however, keepone’s hands wet. Between the tip and the root of the thumb is situate thesacred Tirtha known by the name of Brahma. On the back of the littlefinger, it is said, is situate the Deva-tirtha. The intervening spacebetween the thumb and the forefinger, O Bharata, should be used fordischarging the Pitri rites, after touching water according to theordinance.[476] One should never indulge in other people’s calumny. Norshould one ever utter anything that is disagreeable. The man that desireshis own good should never seek to provoke against himself the wrath ofothers. One should never seek to converse with a person that has fallenaway from his order. The very sight of such a person should be avoided.One should never come in contact with a fallen person. By avoiding suchcontact one succeeds in attaining to a long life. One should neverindulge in sexual congress at day-time. Nor should one have congress witha maiden, nor with a harlot nor with a barren woman. One should neverhave congress with a woman that has not bathed after the expiry of herfunctional period. By avoiding such acts one succeeds in attaining to along life. After washing the several limbs directed, in view of religiousacts, one should wash one’s lips thrice, and once more twice. By doingthis, one becomes purified and fit for religious acts. The several organsof sense should each be washed once, and water should also be sprinkledover the whole body. Having done this, one should go through the worshipof the Pitris and the deities, agreeably with the ordinances of theVedas. Listen to me, O thou of Kuru’s race, as I tell thee whatpurification is cleansing and beneficial for a Brahmana. Before beginningto eat and after finishing the meal, and in all acts requiringpurification, the Brahmana should perform the achamana with water placedon the limb called the Brahmatirtha.[477] After ejecting any matter fromthe throat or spitting, one should wash one’s mouth before one can becomepure. A kinsman who happens to be old, or a friend who happens to bepoor, should be established in one’s house and his comforts looked afteras if he were a member of the family. By doing this, one succeeds inacquiring both fame and long life. The establishment of pigeons in one’shouse is fraught with blessedness, as also of parrots both male andfemale. If female these taken to one’s abode, they succeed in dispellingcalamity. The same is the case with cockroaches, If fireflies andvultures and wood-pigeons and bees enter a house or seek residence in it,acts of propitiating the deities should be performed. These are creaturesof evil omen, as also ospreys. One should never divulge the secrets ofhigh-souled men; one should never have sexual congress with a forbiddenwoman. Nor should one ever have such congress with the spouse of a kingor with women that are the friends of queens. One should never cultivateintimacy with physicians, or with children, or with persons that are old,or with one’s servants, O Yudhishthira. One should always provide forfriends, for Brahmanas, and for such as seek one’s protection. By doingthis, O king, one acquires a long life. The man of wisdom should residein such a house as has been constructed with the aid of a Brahmana and anengineer skilled in his profession, if indeed, O king, he desires his owngood.[478] One should not, O king, sleep at the evening twilight. Norshould one study at such an hour for acquiring any branch of knowledge.The man of intelligence should never eat also at such an hour. By actingin this way one acquires a long life. One should never perform any act inhonour of the Pitris at night time. One should not deck one’s personafter finishing one’s meals. One should bathe at night, if one desiresone’s own advancement. One should also, O Bharata, always abstain fromthe flour of fried barley at night. The remnants of food and drink, asalso the flowers with which one has worshipped the deities, should neverbe used. Inviting a guest at night, one should never, with excessivecourtesy, force him to eat to the point of gratification. Nor should oneeat oneself to the point of gratification, at night. One should not slaya bird (for eating it), especially after having fed it.[479] Onepossessed of wisdom should wed a maiden born in a high family, enduedwith auspicious indications, and of full age. Begetting children upon herand thus perpetuating one’s race by that means, one should make overone’s sons to a good preceptor for acquiring general knowledge, OBharata, as also a knowledge of the especial customs of the family, Omonarch. The daughters that one may beget should be bestowed upon youthsof respectable families, that are again possessed of intelligence. Sonsshould also be established and a portion of the family inheritance, givento them, O Bharata, as their provision. One should bathe by dipping one’shead in water before one sits down to perform any act in honour of thePitris of the deities. One should never perform a Sraddha under theconstellation of one’s nativity. No Sraddha should be performed under anyof the Bhadrapadas (prior or later), nor under the constellationKrittika, O Bharata. The Sraddha should never be performed under any ofthose constellations that are regarded as fierce (such as Aslesha, etc )and any of those that, upon calculation, seem to be hostile. Indeed, inthis respect, all these constellations should be avoided which areforbidden in treatises on astrology. One should sit facing either theeast or the north while undergoing a shave at the hands of the barber. Byso doing, O great king, one succeeds in acquiring a long life. One shouldnever indulge in other people’s calumny or self-reproach, for, O chief ofthe Bharatas, it is said that calumny is sinful, whether of others or ofoneself. In wedding, one should avoid a woman that is deficient of anylimb. A maiden too, if such, should also be avoided. A woman of the samePravaras should also be avoided; as also one that has any malformation;as also one that has been born in the race to which one’s motherbelongs.[480] One possessed of wisdom should never have sexual congresswith a woman that is old, or one that has abandoned the domestic mode oflife for entering the forest mode, or one that is true to her lord, orone whose organs of generation are not healthy or well-formed.[481] Itbehoveth thee not to wed a woman that is of a yellow complexion, or onethat is afflicted with leprosy, or one born in a family in which therehas been epilepsy, or one that is low in birth and habits, or one that isborn in a family in which the disease called Switra (leprosy) hasappeared, or one belonging by birth to a race in which there are earlydeaths. Only that maiden who is endued with auspicious indications, andwho is accomplished for qualifications of diverse kinds, who is agreeableand handsome, should be wedded. One should wed, O Yudhishthira, in afamily that is higher or at least equal to one’s own. One who is desirousof one’s own prosperity, should never wed a woman that is of an inferiororder or that has fallen away from the order of her birth. Carefullyigniting the fire, one should accomplish all those acts which have beenordained and declared in the Vedas or by the Brahmanas.[482] One shouldnever seek to injure women. Spouses should always be protected. Malicealways shortens life. Hence, one should always abstain from cherishingmalice. Sleep at day-time shortens life. To sleep after the sun has risenshortens life. They who sleep at any of the twilights, or at nightfall orwho go to sleep in a state of impurity, have their lives shortened.Adultery always shortens life. One should not remain in a state ofimpurity after shaving.[483] One should, O Bharata, carefully abstainfrom studying or reciting the Vedas, and eating, and bathing, ateventide. When the evening twilight comes, one should collect one’ssenses for meditation, without doing any act. One should, O king, batheand then worship the Brahmanas. Indeed, one should bathe beforeworshipping the deities and reverentially saluting the preceptor. Oneshould never go to a sacrifice unless invited. Indeed, one may go therewithout an invitation if one wishes only to see how the sacrifice isconducted. If one goes to a sacrifice (for any other purpose) without aninvitation and if one does not, on that account, receive proper worshipfrom the sacrificer, one’s life becomes shortened. One should never goalone on a journey to foreign parts. Nor should one ever proceed alone toany place at night. Before evening comes, one should come back to one’shouse and remain within it. One should always obey the commands of one’smother and father and preceptor, without at all judging whether thosecommands are beneficial or otherwise. One should, O king, attend withgreat care to the Vedas and the science of arms. Do then, O king,carefully attend to the practice of riding an elephant, a steed, and awar-chariot. The man who attends to these with care succeeds in attainingto happiness. Such a king succeeds in becoming unconquerable by foes, andsway his servants and kinsmen without any of them being able to get thebetter of him. The king that attains to such a position and thatcarefully attends to the duty of protecting his subjects, has never toincur any loss. Thou shouldst acquire, O king, the science of reasoning,as also the science of words, the science of the Gandharvas, and the fourand sixty branches of knowledge known by the name of Kala. One shouldevery day hear the Puranas and the Itihasas and all the other narrativesthat exist, as also the life-stories of all high-souled personages. Whenone’s spouse passes through functional period, one should never havecongress with her, nor even summon her for conversation. The man enduedwith wisdom may accept her companionship on the fourth day after the bathof purification. If one indulges in congress on the fifth day from thefirst appearance of the functional operation, one gets a daughter. Byindulging in congress on the sixth day, one happens to have a son. Theman of wisdom should in the matter of congress, attend to this rule(about odd and even days). Kinsmen and relatives by marriage and friendsshould all be treated with respect. One should, according to the best ofone’s power, adore the deities in sacrifices, giving away diverse kindsof articles as sacrificial Dakshina. After the period ordained for thedomestic mode of life has been passed, one should, O king, enter the lifeof a forest recluse. I have thus told thee all the indications, in brief,of persons who succeed in living long.[484] What remains untold by meshould be heard by thee from the mouths of persons well-versed in thethree Vedas, O Yudhishthira. Thou shouldst know that conduct is the rootof prosperity. Conduct is the enhancer of fame. It is conduct thatprolongs life. It is conduct that destroys all calamities and evils.Conduct has been said to be superior to all the branches of knowledge. Itis conduct that begets righteousness, and it is righteousness thatprolongs life. Conduct is productive of fame, of long life, and ofheaven. Conduct is the most efficacious rite of propitiating the deities(for bringing about auspiciousness of every kind). The Self-born Brahmanhimself has said that one should show compassion unto all orders ofmen.'”[485]

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