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Chapter 1

Mahabharata English - UDYOGA PARAVA

OM! HAVING BOWED down to Narayana, and Nara the most exalted of malebeings, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.

“Vaisampayana said, ‘Then those valiant descendants of Kuru, who belongedto the same party (with Virata), having joyfully celebrated the nuptialsof Abhimanyu and rested themselves that night, presented themselves atdawn, well pleased, in the court of Virata, And the chamber of the kingof the Matsya was full of riches, and variegated with choice gems andprecious stones, with seats methodically arranged, adorned with garlands,and filled with fragrance. And those mighty monarchs of men all came tothat place, And on the seats in front sat the two kings Virata andDrupada. And the revered and aged rulers of the earth, and Valarama andKrishna along with their father, all sat there. And close to the king ofPanchala was seated the great hero of the race of Sini, together with theson of Rohini. And side by side with the king of the Matsya sat Krishnaand Yudhishthira, and all the sons of king Drupada, and Bhima and Arjuna,and the two sons of Madri, and Pradyumna and Samva, both valiant inbattle, and Abhimanyu with Virata’s sons. And those princes, the sons ofDraupadi, rivalling their fathers in valour, strength, grace, andprowess, sat upon excellent seats inlaid with gold. And when those mightyheroes wearing shining ornaments and robes had set themselves down, thatgorgeous assembly of kings looked beautiful like the firmament spangledwith resplendent stars. And those valiant men, assembled together, havingconversed with one another upon various topics, remained for some time ina pensive mood, with their eyes fixed upon Krishna. And at the end oftheir talk, Krishna drew their attention to the affairs of the Pandavas.And those powerful kings together listened to Krishna’s speech, pregnantand lofty. And Krishna said, It is known to you all, how thisYudhishthira was deceitfully defeated at dice by the son of Suvala, andhow he was robbed of his kingdom and how a stipulation was made by himconcerning his exile in the forest. And capable as they were ofconquering the earth by force, the sons of Pandu remained firm in theirplighted faith. And accordingly for six and seven years theseincomparable men accomplished the cruel task imposed upon them. And thislast, the thirteenth year, was exceedingly hard for them to pass. Yetunrecognised by any one they have passed it, as known to you, sufferingunendurable hardships of various kinds. This is known to you all. Theseillustrious men have spent the thirteenth year, employed in menialservice of others. This being so, it is for you to consider what will befor the good of both Yudhishthira and Duryodhana, and what, as regardsthe Kurus and the Pandavas, will be consistent with the rules ofrighteousness and, propriety and what will meet with the approbation ofall. The virtuous king Yudhishthira would not unrighteously covet eventhe celestial kingdom. But righteously he would accept the rule even of asingle village. How the sons of Dhritarashtra fraudulently robbed him ofhis paternal kingdom, and how he hath passed a life of unendurablehardships, are known to all the kings assembled here. The sons ofDhritarashtra are incapable of overcoming by strength Arjuna, the son ofPritha. Nevertheless, king Yudhishthira and his friends have no otherdesire than the good of Dhritarashtra’s son. These brave sons of Kunti,and the two sons of Madri, ask for only what they themselves, achievingvictory in battle, had won from the defeated kings. You, no doubt, knowfull well how those enemies of the Pandavas–with the object ofpossessing themselves of the kingdom, endeavoured by various means todestroy them, when they were yet mere boys. So wicked and rancorous theywere. Consider, how grasping they are and how virtuous Yudhishthira is.Consider also the relationship that exists between them. I beseech youall to consult together and also think separately. The Pandavas havealways had a regard for truth. They have fulfilled their promise to thevery letter. If now treated wrongfully by the sons of Dhritarashtra, theywould slay them all though banded together. They have friends, who, onbeing informed of their unworthy treatment at the hands of others, wouldstand by them, engaged in fight with their persecutors, and willinglyslay them even if they should lose their own lives for it. If you supposethem to be too few to be capable of winning a victory over their enemies,you must know that united together and followed by their friends, theywould, no doubt, try their utmost to destroy those enemies. WhatDuryodhana thinks is not exactly known, nor what he may do. When the mindof the other side is not known, what opinion can be formed by you as towhat is best to be done? Therefore, let a person, virtuous and honest andof respectable birth, and wary,–an able ambassador, set out to beseechthem mildly for inducing them to give half the kingdom to Yudhishthira.Having listened to the speech of Krishna, marked by prudence and a regardfor virtue and showing a pacific and impartial spirit, his elder brotherthen addressed the assembly bestowing high encomiums on the words of theyounger brother.'”

Chapter 2
Chapter 108
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