Chapter 50

Mahabharata English - ASWAMEDHA PARVA

“Brahmana said, ‘Well then, I shall declare to you what you ask. Learnwhat was told by a preceptor to a disciple that came unto him. Hearing itall, do you settle properly (what it should be). Abstention from harmingany creature is regarded as the foremost of all duties. That is thehighest seat, free from anxiety and constituting an indication ofholiness. The ancients who were beholders of the certain truth, have saidthat knowledge is the highest happiness. Hence, one becomes released ofall sins by pure knowledge. They that are engaged in destruction andharm, they that are infidels in conduct, have to go to Hell inconsequence of their being endued with cupidity and delusion. Those who,without procrastination, perform acts, impelled thereto by expectationbecome repeatedly born in this world and sport in joy. Those men who,endued with learning and wisdom, perform acts with faith, free fromexpectations, and possessed of concentration of mind, are said toperceive clearly. I shall, after this, declare how the association andthe dissociation takes place of Kshetrajna and Nature. Ye best of men,listen. The relation here is said to be that between the object and thesubject.[147] Purusha is always the subject; and Nature has been said tobe the object. It has been explained, by what has been said in a previousportion of the discourse where it has been pointed out, that they existafter the manner of the Gnat and the Udumbara. An object of enjoyment asit is, Nature is unintelligent and knows nothing. He, however, who enjoysit, is said to know it. Kshetrajna being enjoyer, Nature is enjoyed. Thewise have said that Nature is always made up of pairs of opposites (andconsists of qualities). Kshetrajna is, on the other hand, destitute ofpairs of opposites, devoid of parts, eternal, and free, as regards itsessence, from qualities. He resides in everything alike, and walks, withknowledge. He always enjoys Nature, as a lotus leaf (enjoys) water.Possessed of knowledge, he is never tainted even if brought into contactwith all the qualities. Without doubt, Purusha is unattached like theunsteady drop of water on the lotus-leaf. This is the certain conclusion(of the scriptures) that Nature is the property of Purusha. The relationbetween these two (viz., Purusha and Nature) is like that existingbetween matter and its maker. As one goes into a dark place taking alight with him, even so those who wish for the Supreme proceed with thelight of Nature.[148] As long as matter and quality (which are like oiland wick) exist, so long the light shines. The flame, however, becomesextinguished when matter and quality (or oil and wick) are exhausted.Thus Nature is manifest; while Purusha is said to be unmanifest.Understand this, ye learned Brahmanas. Well, I shall now tell yousomething more. With even a thousand (explanations), one that has a badunderstanding succeeds not in acquiring knowledge. One, however, that isendued with intelligence succeeds in attaining happiness, through only afourth share (of explanations). Thus should the accomplishment of duty beunderstood as dependent on means. For the man of intelligence, havingknowledge of means, succeeds in attaining to supreme felicity. As someman travelling along a road without provisions for his journey, proceedswith great discomfort and may even meet with destruction before hereaches the end of his journey, even so should it be known that ill actsthere may not be fruits.[149] The examination of what is agreeable andwhat is disagreeable in one’s own self is productive of benefit.[150] Theprogress in life of a man that is devoid of the perception of truth islike that of a man who rashly journeys on a long road unseen before. Theprogress, however, of those that are endued with intelligence is likethat of men who journey along the same road, riding on a car unto whichare yoked (fleet) steeds and which moves with swiftness. Having ascendedto the top of a mountain, one should not cast one’s eyes on the surfaceof the earth.[151] Seeing a man, even though travelling on a car,afflicted and rendered insensible by pain, the man of intelligencejourneys on a car as long as there is a car path.[152] The man oflearning, when he sees the car path end, abandons his car for going on.Even thus proceeds the man of intelligence who is conversant with theordinances respecting truth and Yoga (or Knowledge and Devotion).Conversant with the qualities, such a man proceeds, comprehending what isnext and next.[153] As one that plunges, without a boat, into theterrible ocean, with only one’s two arms, through delusion, undoubtedlywishes for destruction; while the man of wisdom, conversant withdistinctions, goes into the water, with a boat equipt with oars, and sooncrosses the lake without fatigue, and having crossed it attains to theother shore and casts off the boat, freed from the thought of meum. Thishas been already explained by the illustration of the car and thepedestrian. One who has been overwhelmed by delusion in consequence ofattachment, adheres to it like a fisherman to his boat. Overcome by theidea of meum, one wanders within its narrow range. After embarking on aboat it is not possible in moving about on land. Similarly, it is notpossible in moving about on water after one has mounted on a car. Thereare thus various actions with regard to various objects. And as action isperformed in this world, so does it result to those that perform them.That which is void of smell, void of taste, and void of touch and sound,that which is meditated upon by the sages with the aid of theirunderstanding, is said to be Pradhana. Now, Pradhana is unmanifest. Adevelopment of the unmanifest is Mahat. A development of Pradhana when ithas become Mahat is Egoism. From egoism is produced the developmentcalled the great elements. And of the great elements respectively, theobjects of sense are said to be the developments. The unmanifest is ofthe nature of seed. It is productive in its essence. It has been heard byus that the great soul has the virtues of a seed, and that is a product.Egoism is of the nature of seed and is a product again and again. And thefive great elements are of the nature of seed and products. The objectsof the five great elements are endued with the nature of seed, and yieldproducts. These have Chitta for their property. Among them, space has onequality; wind is said to have two. Light, it is said, is endued withthree qualities; and water as possessed of four qualities. Earth, teemingwith mobiles and immobiles, should be known as possessed of fivequalities. She is a goddess that is the source of all entities andabounds with examples of the agreeable and the disagreeable. Sound,likewise touch, colour, taste, and smell numbering the fifth,–these arethe five qualities of earth, ye foremost of regenerate persons. Smellalways belongs to earth, and smell is said to be of various kinds. Ishall state at length the numerous qualities of smell. Smell is agreeableor disagreeable, sweet, sour, pungent, diffusive and compact, oily anddry, and clear. Thus smell, which belongs to the earth, should be knownas of ten kinds.[154] Sound, touch, likewise colour, and taste have beensaid to be the qualities of water. I shall now speak of the qualities ofTaste. Taste has been said to be of various kinds. Sweet, sour, pungent,bitter, astringent, and saline likewise. Taste, which has been said toappertain to water, is thus of six varieties. Sound, touch, and likewisecolour,–these are the three qualities which light is said to bepossessed of. Colour is the quality of light, and colour is said to be ofvarious kinds. White, dark, likewise red, blue, yellow, and grey also,and short, long, minute, gross, square and circular, of these twelvevarieties in colour which belongs to light. These should be understood byBrahmanas venerable for years, conversant with duties, and truthful inspeech. Sound and touch should be known as the two qualities of wind.Touch has been said to be of various kinds. Rough, cold and like wisehot, tender and clear, hard, oily, smooth, slippery, painful and soft, oftwelve kinds is touch, which is the quality of wind, as said by Brahmanascrowned with success, conversant with duties, and possessed of a sight oftruth. Now space has only one quality, and that is said to be sound. Ishall speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. Shadaja,Rishabha, together with Gandhara, Madhyama, and likewise Panchama; afterthis should be known Nishada, and then Dhaivata.[155] Besides these,there are agreeable sounds and disagreeable sounds, compact, and of manyingredients. Sound which is born of space should thus be known to be often kinds. Space is the highest of the (five) elements. Egoism is aboveit. Above egoism is understanding. Above understanding is the soul. Abovethe soul is the Unmanifest. Above the Unmanifest is Purusha. One whoknows which is superior and inferior among existent creatures, who isconversant with the ordinances in respect of all acts, and whoconstitutes himself the soul of all creatures, attains to the UnfadingSoul.'”

Chapter 51
Chapter 49
🙏 धर्म और आध्यात्म को जन-जन तक पहुँचाने में हमारा साथ दें| 🙏