“–The Brahmana said, ‘He who becomes absorbed in the one receptacle (ofall things), freeing himself from even the thought of his own identitywith all things,–indeed, ceasing to think of even his ownexistence,–gradually casting off one after another, will succeed incrossing his bonds. That man who is the friend of all, who enduresall, who is attached to tranquillity, who has conquered all his senses,who is divested of fear and wrath, and who is of restrained soul.succeeds in emancipating himself. He who behaves towards all creatures astowards himself, who is restrained, pure, free from vanity and divestedof egoism is regarded as emancipated from everything. He also isemancipated who looks with an equal eye upon life and death, pleasure andpain, gain and loss, agreeable and disagreeable. He is in every wayemancipated who does not covet what belongs to others, who neverdisregards any body, who transcends all pairs of opposites, and whosesoul is free from attachment. He is emancipated who has no enemy, nokinsman, and no child, who has cast off religion, wealth, and pleasure,and who is freed from desire or cupidity. He becomes emancipated whoacquires neither merit nor demerit, who casts off the merits and demeritsaccumulated in previous births, who wastes the elements of his body forattaining to a tranquillised soul, and who transcends all pairs ofopposites. He who abstains from all acts, who is free from desire orcupidity, who looks upon the universe as unenduring or as like anAswattha tree, ever endued with birth, death and decrepitude, whoseunderstanding is fixed on renunciation, and whose eyes are alwaysdirected towards his own faults, soon succeeds in emancipating himselffrom the bonds that bind him. He that sees his soul void of smell, oftaste and touch, of sound, of belongings, of vision, and unknowable,becomes emancipated. He who sees his soul devoid of the attributes ofthe five elements to be without form and cause, to be really destitute ofattributes though enjoying them, becomes emancipated. Abandoning,with the aid of the understanding, all purposes relating to body andmind, one gradually attains to cessation of separate existence, like afire unfed with fuel. One who is freed from all impressions, whotranscends all pairs of opposites, who is destitute of all belongings,and who uses all his senses under the guidance of penances, becomesemancipated. Having become freed from all impressions, one thenattains to Brahma which is Eternal and supreme, and tranquil, and stable,and enduring, and indestructible. After this I shall declare the scienceof Yoga to which there is nothing superior, and how Yogins, byconcentration, behold the perfect soul. I shall declare theinstructions regarding it duly. Do thou learn from me those doors bywhich directing the soul within the body one beholds that which iswithout beginning and end. Withdrawing the senses from their objects,one should fix the mind upon the soul; having previously undergone theseverest austerities, one should practise that concentration of mindwhich leads to Emancipation. Observant of penances and alwayspractising concentration of mind, the learned Brahmana, endued withintelligence, should observe the precepts of the science of Yoga,beholding the soul in the body. If the good man succeeds in concentratingthe mind on the soul, he then, habituated to exclusive meditation,beholds the Supreme soul in his own soul. Self-restrained, and alwaysconcentrated, and with all his senses completely conquered, the man ofcleansed soul, in consequence of such complete concentration of mind,succeeds in beholding the soul by the soul. As a person beholding someunseen individual in a dream recognises him, saying,–This is he,–whenhe sees him after waking, after the same manner the good man having seenthe Supreme Soul in the deep contemplation of Samadhi recognises it uponwaking from Samadhi. As one beholds the fibrous pith after extractingit from a blade of the Saccharum Munja, even so the Yogin beholds thesoul, extracting it from the body. The body has been called the SaccharumMunja, and the fibrous pith is said to stand for the soul. This is theexcellent illustration propounded by persons conversant with Yoga. Whenthe bearer of a body adequately beholds the soul in Yoga, he then has noone that is master over him, for he then becomes the lord of the threeworlds. He succeeds in assuming diverse bodies according as hewishes. Turning away decrepitude and death, he neither grieves norexults. The self-restrained man, concentrated in Yoga, can create (forhimself) the godship of the very gods. Casting off his transient body heattains to immutable Brahma. No fear springs up in him at even thesight of all creatures falling victims to destruction (before his eyes).When all creatures are afflicted,–he can never be afflicted by any one.Devoid of desire and possessed of a tranquil mind, the person in Yoga isnever shaken by pain and sorrow and fear, the terrible effects that flowfrom attachment and affection. Weapons never pierce him; death does notexist for him. Nowhere in the world can be seen any one that is happierthan he. Having adequately concentrated his soul, he lives steadily onhimself. Turning off decrepitude and pain and pleasure, he sleeps incomfort. Casting off this human body he attains to (other) formsaccording to his pleasure. While one is enjoying the sovereignty thatYoga bestows, one should never fall away from devotion to Yoga. Whenone, after adequate devotion to Yoga, beholds the Soul in oneself, onethen ceases to have any regard for even him of a hundred sacrifices(Indra). Hear now how one, habituating oneself to exclusivemeditation, succeeds in attaining to Yoga. Thinking of that point of thecompass which has the Sun behind it, the mind should be fixed, notoutside, but in the interior of that mansion in which one may happen tolive. Residing within that mansion, the mind should then, with all itsoutward and inward (operations), behold in that particular room in whichone may stay. At that time when, having deeply meditated, one beholds theAll (viz., Brahman, the Soul of the universe), there is then nothingexternal to Brahman where the mind may dwell. Restraining all the sensesin a forest that is free from noise and that is uninhabited, with mindfixed thereon, one should meditate on the All (or universal Brahman) bothoutside and inside one’s body. One should meditate on the teeth, thepalate, the tongue, the throat, the neck likewise; one should alsomeditate on the heart and the ligatures of the heart!
“The Brahmana continued, ‘Thus addressed by me, that intelligentdisciple, O slayer of Madhu, once more asked me about this religion ofEmancipation that is so difficult to explain. How does this food that iseaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does itbecome transformed into juice? How, again, into blood? How does itnourish the flesh, the marrow, the sinews, the bones? How do all theselimbs of embodied creatures grow? How does the strength grow of thegrowing man? How occurs the escape of all such elements as are notnutritive, and of all impurities separately? How does this one inhale andagain, exhale? Staying upon what particular part does the Soul dwell inthe body? How does Jiva, exerting himself, bear the body? Of what colourand of what kind is the body in which he dwells again (leaving aparticular body)? O holy one, it behoveth thee to tell me all thisaccurately, O sinless one,–even thus was I interrogated by that learnedBrahmana, O Madhava. I replied unto him, O thou of mighty arms, after themanner I myself had heard, O chastiser of all foes. As one placing someprecious object in one’s store-room should keep one’s mind on it, so,placing the mind within one’s own body, one should then, restraining allthe senses, seek after the Soul, avoiding all heedlessness. One would,becoming always assiduous in this way and gratified with one’s own self,within a very short time attain to that Brahma by beholding which onewould become conversant with Pradhana. He is not capable of beingseized by the eye; nor even by all the senses. It is only with thelamp of the mind that great Soul can be seen. He has hands and feet onall sides; he has ears on all sides; he dwells, pervading all things inthe world. Jiva beholds the Soul as extracted from the body (like thestalk from a blade of Saccharum Munja, when knowledge comes). Thencasting off Brahma as invested with form, by holding the mind in thebody, he beholds Brahma as freed from all attributes. He sees theSoul with his mind, smiling as it were at the time. Depending upon thatBrahma, he then attains to Emancipation in me. O foremost ofregenerate ones, all this mystery has now been declared by me. I ask thypermission, for I shall leave this spot. Do thou (also) go withersoeverthou pleasest. Thus addressed by me, O Krishna, on that occasion, thatdisciple of mine, endued with austere penances, that Brahmana of rigidvows, went away according to his pleasure.
“Vasudeva continued, ‘That best of Brahmanas, O son of Pritha, havingsaid these words unto me, on that occasion, properly relating to thereligion of Emancipation, disappeared then and there. Has this discoursebeen heard by thee, O son of Pritha, with mind directed solely towardsit? Even this was what thou didst hear on that occasion while thou werton thy car. It is my opinion, O son of Pritha, that this is difficult ofbeing comprehended by one whose understanding is confused, or who hasacquired no wisdom by study, or who eats food incompatible with his body,or whose Soul is not purified. O chief of Bharata’s race, this is agreat mystery among the deities that has been declared (to thee). At notime or place, O son of Pritha, has this been heard by man in this world.O sinless one, no other man than thyself is deserving of hearing it. Itis not, at this time, capable of being easily understood by one whoseinner soul is confused. The world of the deities is filled, O son ofKunti, with those who follow the religion of actions. The cessation ofthe mortal form (by practising the religion of inaction) is not agreeableto the deities. That goal, O son of Pritha, is the highest which isconstituted by eternal Brahman where one, casting off the body, attainsto immortality and becomes always happy. By adhering to this religion,even they who axe of sinful birth, such as women and Vaisyas and Sudras,attain to the highest goal. What need be said then, O son of Pritha, ofBrahmanas and Kshatriyas possessed of great learning, always devoted tothe duties of their own orders and who are intent on (the acquisition of)the region of Brahma? This has been laid down with the reasons (on whichit rests); and also the means for its acquisition; and its completeattainment and fruit, viz., Emancipation and the ascertainment of thetruth regarding pain. O chief of Bharata’s race, there is nothing elsethat is fraught with happiness greater than this. That mortal, O son ofPandu, who, endued with intelligence, and faith, and prowess, renouncesas unsubstantial what is regarded as substantial by the world, succeedswithin a short time in obtaining the Supreme by these means. This is allthat is to be said,–there is nothing else that is higher than this. Yogatakes place in his case, O son of Pritha, who devotes himself to itsconstant practice for a period of six months.'”